CARBOHYDRATES

The main function of carbohydrates will be to serve as an energy fuel. Carbs are water based molecules which range in size and are seen in most plant foods, grains and primarily fruits and carbon. There are several different types of carbs including simple sugars for example glucose and fructose to long polysaccharides, that might contain many simple sugars. Whatever the size, once it is have it is broken down into the lowest component, a glucose molecule, so as to be utilized by the body.
Disaccharides

Sucrose = Fructose Glucose
Lactose = Glucose Galactose
Maltose = Glucose Glucose

Monosaccharides

Glucose
Fructose
Galactose

Amylose Typical chain length of 600 glucose residues
Amylopectin Typical chain length of 6000 glucose deposits
Dietry Fibre

Soluble Absorbs water, delays the absorption of sugar and binds bile salts
Insoluble Binds to water and has a bulking affect which aids and improves the efficiency of the motion of nutrients and waste products and the action of the gut and colon through the digestive tract
Glucose, Glycogen and Performance

When glucose is not needed immediately for energy, insoluble’s kept in long chains and liver. Skeletal muscle favours glucose while fructose is favoured by the liver, to replenish glycogen. Glycogen stores in the liver are utilized to fuel organs such as the mind and glycogen stores in the muscles are utilized to fuel muscle action. For keeping glycogen the entire body’s capacity is limited. It is feasible for excessive glucose to be converted into fat and stored for later use once the glycogen stores are replenished.
Because carbohydrates could be kept round the body as fat, carbohydrates have developed a bad name, and many athletes make an effort to reduce their consumption of carbs so as to avoid gaining fat, nevertheless extreme carbohydrate restriction is counter-productive and possibly dangerous for sportsmen. Since muscle and liver glycogen stores are limited, a low carbohydrate diet isn’t going to give you the energy you should do a hard workout. In addition since carb provides crucial fuel low carbohydrate diets make you more susceptible to colds and disease.
Consuming carbohydrates around training times can have positive effects on muscle development and performance , however when consumed in excess carbohydrates might have negative impacts on the body. Blood insulin levels increase and after many years the body starts to resist the hormone when dietary carbohydrate is high. This results in higher blood insulin levels which can result in fat storage around the body and increased danger of developing (type2) diabetes.
Glycemic Index

The glycemic index is a way of categorising foods by their effect. A food using a low glycemic index generates a light, sustained increase in glucose levels. A food having a high glycemic index produces a large glucose spike. At one time conventional wisdom held that foods containing mainly simple sugars had a high glycemic index and the ones featuring largely complex carbohydrates had a low glycemic index nevertheless there are some exceptions to the rule. Normally whole grains have a lower glycemic index than processed grains, high fibre foods have a lower glycemic index than high fibre foods, and foods containing high amounts of protein and fat have a lower glycemic index than foods with little amounts of protein and fat, as they slow down the absorption process. The general understanding is that high glycemic index foods certainly are a lousy nutritional pick only because they cause insulin spikes and also lead to tiredness and overeating as a result of blood sugar crashes, yet their strong influence on insulin also makes high glycemic index sugars precious during and after exercise.
Another overlooked benefit of carbohydrate during drawn-out exercise is they help together with the metabolism of fat. The muscle cell has a metabolic precedence system when it comes to nutrients it uses for energy. For short exercise spells such as resistance exercise, carbohydrate is the main nutrient used. During stretched exercise the muscles often rely on fat stores as its source of energy. But carbohydrate is still a required nutrient in order to drive the utilization of fat for energy.

Outline

Simple carbs are broken down fast and are useful when energy is necessary rapidly.
Complex carbohydrates seen in pastas and potatoes and are broken.
Fibres delay the absorption and may help to keep blood glucose levels more secure as well as having positive effects on digestion
Carbs have a glycemic index that is a measure of its own impact on blood glucose levels
Glycogen is the main store of carb of our body and can be seen in muscles and the liver Excessive consumption of carbohydrate can lead to fat storage and lifted blood insulin levels which over time may have negative effects on well-being